I hope this guide will help you if you’ve come across experimental sources of title errors.


  • 1. Download ASR Pro
  • 2. Open the program and select "Scan your computer"
  • 3. Click "Repair" to start the repair process
  • The software to fix your PC is just a click away - download it now.

    Certain factors, of course, must lead to errors in the titration results, to the integration of incorrectly read volumes, to incorrect concentration values ​​or sometimes to an erroneous method. Care is required because a solution of such an important concentration is injected into a very precise unknown volume through large glass devices such as a burette or simply a pipette.

    Several factors can contribute to errors in titration results, including misinterpreted volumes, erroneous concentration values, or incorrect methodology. Care is required when a solution of both known and unknown is introduced into the specific gravity of the unknown via laboratory glassware such as a burette or pipette.

    Title » Title Error

    For any type of titration aboutEnd point determination is also a major bias. The difference between the equivalence point and the estimated endpoint is called the new titration error. The visual endpoint is always slightly outside the equivalence phase due to the need to visually sense the color change.

    sources of experimental error in titration

    There are a number of errors that can cause the titration result to deviate from reality.


    The ASR Pro repair tool is the solution for a Windows PC that's running slowly, has registry issues, or is infected with malware. This powerful and easy-to-use tool can quickly diagnose and fix your PC, increasing performance, optimizing memory, and improving security in the process. Don't suffer from a sluggish computer any longer - try ASR Pro today!

    First, this method has a disadvantage: the end point may not match the point equivalence, and the indicator color change is not instantaneous. The reasons for this difference have been discussed in detail in the sections “End of detection range” and “End of determination of the acid-base titration factor”.

    The difference between the equivalence point and the measured endpoint is considered a titration error. The overall visual point is usually always slightly above the equivalence point because the eye needs to see the color change.

    If there are redundant reagent shipping containers, be aware that the color of the reagent signals the endpoint. Although this is also an inherent feature of the model, it can be corrected using blind testing. There

    Then errors are exactly what can be associated with that The quality of volumetric sections. They can be adjusted by carefully sizing the type of glassware. If for any reason a calibration cannot actually be performed, we can minimize misunderstandings with a Grade A volumetric glass. We can also carefully minimize errors by using commonly used pipette and burette volumes. As discussed in all sections on volumetric glassware and the choice of sample volume and volume of titrant, the use of 50 ml burettes and approximately 80-90% of their volume provides the smallest relative titration error (reduces the accuracy of the determination). Also, using only large volume pipettes (20 or 25 ml) means relatively fewer errors.

    Over-titration is a condition in which the type of container usually contains more iodine than water (general definition). In case of over-titration, the container becomes very dark due to the amount of iodine present in the container.

    After all, there are thousands of possible random errors that cannot be corrected. Some of these are typical human errors that can be limited by adhering to procedure and laboratory, but since an artificial operator is involved, they are completely eliminated. Here are some possible cases:

  • Bad estimateand symptom colors near the end point, this fact is probably the most common. Not only is color change often very complex and slow, but different types of people react differently to costumes. It’s not the same because you’re colorblind, although these traits are related.
  • Misreading the tape – possibly at any time, for almost any reason. For example, it could be a parallax issue (when someone looks at a volume from an angle) or a bug in college ungraded counts. When reading buret volume, it is not only unusual to read both upper and lower values ​​under different lighting conditions, which can make a difference.
  • Use of poisonous solutions: for example, when several solutions are transferred with the same pipette, and the pipette does not need to be rinsed with distilled water last.
  • Use the dilution titration and dilution titration strategy when the burette and/or pipette could not be washed with the transferred additive after washing with distilled and filteredbath water. In its action (titratable or titrated substance) it is slightly diluted. solutions
  • A completely wrong concentration is being used – the titrant used is probably not at the concentration expected. This may be due to false standardization errors, concentration copying, viral content in the vial, titrant degradation, storage of the solution in an open box, and partial evaporation and subsequent evaporation.
  • Using the wrong amount of indicator, as described in the acid-base titration properties section, may change the endpoint in case of an additional amount of color indicator.
  • Use Dirty Glass – If the glass has not been properly cleaned long before use, it may be contaminated with old reagents, which the new reagents can react to and change their concentration. In addition, dirty glass is not completely wetted by solutions, and drops may well form on the glass (see the volumetric cleaning of glassware section next to the figure), whichmakes it impossible to accurately measure the volume.
  • Rinse the burette and/or pipette with the wrong solution – if the burette is not dry before insertion, it should be rinsed with the prepared solution. Using only distilled water for flushing means that the solution to be carried is only diluted. This, of course, is only important if the sample, titrant and stoichiometric reagents are used for back titration. Small errors in the amount of other products (buffers, acids to lower the pH in redox titrations, solutions, masking interfering substances, etc.) are not so important.
  • The buret is not filling properly. If the airlock is in the stopcock of the burette, this may cause the titrant outlet to be blocked, but some type of titrant may be flowing through it; After that, we have no idea how thick the actual mortar used is.
  • Do not transfer all solids/liquids during sample preparation – there may be cast stone left in the funnel of the transfer vial that has been hit or simplygot lost in the process. As a rule, after the transfer of the product, the walls of the glassware are carefully checked – it may happen that the solution is pipetted into several containers, and the drop is titrated against the wall of the vial or is not washed off until the distilled water from the pond. If the pipette is not visible, try leaving some of the solution inside as drops on the glass.
  • Check balance calibration.Make sure the best standard is properly dried.Check the accuracy of your cookware.Use a sufficient amount of analyte and titrant.Be aware of hardware limitations.

    The software to fix your PC is just a click away - download it now.

    Define the end point. The most common and obvious limitation of titration experiments is that the end point of the curve does not necessarily correspond exactly to the exact equivalence point.ty.accuracy of measuring instruments.the value of the uncertainty.Other human errors.

    Method of measurement.Instrument (instrument error/buret abrasion)Tracks (uncertainty on tracks/track changes)Ability to handle.balance (weighing error)Temperature.

    The following factors contribute to large errors in redox titrations with image flags: endpoint error (DeltaV(T)), which depends on the difference between your current equivalence point potential and the actual endpoint at that indicator; indicator consumption error (DeltaV(T)),